Peru, with an area of 1,285,216 km2 and a population of 28,220,764 million (October 2007), is located in the center of the west coast of South America. The presence of the Peruvian water stream (locally known as the Humboldt Current), the Andes Mountains and the Amazon jungle, have created a wide range of climates within the country and a very uneven distribution of water resources.
The annual water consumption in Peru is about 20 072 million cubic meters per year (Mm3/year), from which 80% is employed in agriculture, 18% used in drinking water, sewage services and industrial uses, and 2% in the mining industry. The non-consumptive use, including power generation, is estimated at 11 139 Mm3 per year.
Human activities have an impact on surface and subsurface water resources. Agricultural activities, infrastructure constructions, industrial uses, mining, municipal activities and grazing have an important impact on the environment.