Brazil has 12% of the fresh water on the planet. This resource is distributed unevenly throughout the national territory, whose length ranges from 5° north latitude to 34° south latitude, and includes a variety of climates and weather influences from the equatorial region to the cold fronts that originate in the Antarctic.
Just as it happens in other countries and regions of the world, the uses given to water in Brazil are diverse and the intensity of their use, specifically in this country, are related to the economic, social and agricultural development along 12 water basins. Among the consumptive uses are the urban and rural public supplies, the industry and irrigation. As for non-consumptive uses they have hydropower, fisheries, navigation, agriculture, tourism and recreation.
The main problems of water pollution and water damage that come as a result of various economic activities, as well as the multiple uses of water in the country, are the increased toxicity of surface and groundwater, the eutrophication of rivers and reservoirs that produce excessive growth of cyanobacteria and organic pollution of water sources, especially near large cities and metropolitan regions.